A new design for chaotic oscillating circuitry inspired by prime numbers

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A simple, but versatile way of generating so-called “chaotic signals” with various features has been developed by a team from the Tokyo Institute of Technology.

The technique involves interconnecting three "ring oscillators," effectively making them compete against each other, while controlling their respective strengths and their linkages.

The result is a small and efficient device that could lead to the development of a wireless networks of sensors.

Our ability to recreate the signals found in natural systems, such as those in brains, swarms, and the weather, is useful for our understanding of the underlying principles, according to the Tokyo team. These signals can be complicated, to the extreme case of chaotic signals.

Chaos does not mean randomness; it represents a complex type of order. Minute changes in the parameters of a chaotic system can result in greatly different behaviours. Chaotic signals are difficult to predict, but they are present in lots of different scenarios.

Unfortunately, the generation of chaotic signals with desired features is a difficult task. Creating them digitally is in some cases too power consuming, and approaches based on analogue circuits are necessary.

The researchers propose a new approach for creating integrated circuits that can generate chaotic signals. They looked at the idea that cycles that have periods set by different prime numbers cannot develop a fixed phase relationship. Surprisingly, this principle seems to have emerged in the evolution of several species of cicadas, whose life cycles follow prime numbers of years, to avoid synchronising with each other and with predators. For example, if one tries to "tie together" oscillators with periods set to the first three prime numbers (3, 5 and 7), the resulting signals are very complicated and chaos can readily be generated.

The design started from the most traditional oscillator found in integrated circuits, called the "ring oscillator," which is small and does not require reactive components (capacitors and inductors). Such a circuit was modified so that the strengths of ring oscillators having three, five and seven stages could be controlled independently, along with the tightness of their linkages. The device could generate chaotic signals over a wide frequency spectrum, from audible frequencies to the radio band (1 kHz to 10 MHz). "Moreover, it could do so at a rather low power consumption, below one-millionth of a watt," explains Dr. Hiroyuki Ito, head of the laboratory where the prototype was designed.

The team discovered that different types of signals could be generated depending on the slightly different characteristics the individual prototypes. For example, the researchers recorded trains of spikes quite similar to what is found in biological neurons. They also found situations in which the rings "fought each other" to the point of almost completely suppressing their activity, a phenomenon called "oscillation death”.

The team believes this method will become a building block for many different applications; and will work on integrating this circuit with sensors to, for example, measure chemical properties in the soil. Additionally, they will create networks of these oscillators on single computer chips interconnected in manners that resemble biological neural circuits. They hope to realise certain operations while consuming many times less power than a traditional computer.