Embedded

Software dominates the embedded system design process; according to some estimates, software development can now consume up to 70% of a project’s resources.

Traditionally, software development started when the hardware arrived, but not any more: software designers are using virtual prototypes to get their projects started in time to meet the deadlines.

But there are also operating systems, which manage this growing complexity. The choices are numerous and have an impact at the system level, as well for deeply embedded products. And C is no longer the only programming language.

Whatever the complexity of the embedded system you’re developing software for, New Electronics addresses the issues regularly by looking at the latest tools and techniques available.

3D structures to dominate the flash memory market

If the year ends in a seven, there’s a good chance of it being a flash memory year. The pattern has worked since June 1967, when Bell Laboratories researcher Dawon Kahng filed a patent on a technology that made it possible to store charge for long periods inside the gate of the then novel metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) transistor.

Developing code that is secure by construction

Software is the ‘soft underbelly’ of embedded systems, where the smallest error can compromise security. To eliminate such vulnerabilities, security must be designed into code from the ground up and be addressed throughout the project – and all code must be tested to make sure it works as expected.

Testing the Big Bang of smart devices

Imagine today’s typical test manager, awash in an alphabet soup of wireless protocols and sensors upon sensors. Thanks to the proliferation of smart devices in the Internet of Things (IoT), it’s a circumstance not unlike a star-filled sky, teeming with a dizzying mix of possibility and disorientation that is surely keeping organisational leaders up at night as they wonder what to do next.

Oscilloscope manufacturers are looking to supply more intelligent probes as engineers seek greater measurement accuracy

Connecting a probe to a device under test can prove to be a time consuming activity, especially in the case of the increasingly complex devices that are now entering the market. While the ideal probe should offer ease of connection, convenience, absolute signal fidelity, zero signal source loading and complete noise immunity, there is currently no ideal probe size or configuration.

Subaru Saves 2,000 Man Hours with PXI-Based Hybrid Vehicle Testing

PXI has long been established as the de facto standard for building automated test systems, but its uses stretch beyond solely manufacturing or production test. With the PXI platform’s capability for running real-time operating systems or deploying code to FPGAs, it is also well suited to use earlier in the development process, particularly for complex devices like electronic control units (ECUs) and full authority digital electronics control (FADEC) systems.

How to improve your product design efficiency

In an ideal world, when the hardware and software for a new product are mated and the power applied for the first time, everything works just as specified. But we don’t live in that ideal world; we live in a ‘buggy’ world where not everything goes as planned.

Managing devices securely over their lifecycle

Trust is inherently a fragile concept, based traditionally on knowledge and experience. And trust is something which is challenging to embody in a ‘new’ device. As such, the industry needs to develop new approaches to certify, validate and verify devices as they appear in the market. While regulation and guidance is a critical part of this, the problem is too large for a single government or industry regulator; instead, it must become part of the industry’s DNA of product creation, production and distribution.

Will MRAM replace flash in leading edge processes?

As microcontrollers run at faster clock rates and the amount of software needed in embedded systems increases, developers are becoming more interested in embedding memory on chip, rather than transferring data to and from an external device.

Memristors as logic gates and memory cells in tomorrow’s computing devices

As the last decade ended, ARM’s CTO Mike Muller warned the era of dark silicon was approaching. The 2008 International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors, published a year before, showed that scaling was diverging from transistor size. Muller argued that, while Moore’s Law might well deliver billions of transistors, they cannot all be active at the same time without making the chip cook itself to death.

Security risks in the connected world

To say the Internet of Things (IoT) is here to stay may be the understatement of the decade. We are all knee-deep in the IoT and there is no turning back – gone are the days of thinking connecting refrigerators, security systems and vending machines to the Internet is in a land far, far away.

Back to the future for RISC

The surprise announcement that SoftBank was to buy ARM sent ripples through the electronics industry as companies tried to determine the long-term consequences of the deal. Though there is no immediate threat to users of the ARM architecture, the potential for upheaval has led some companies to consider the risks of changes in their relationship with the processor-IP supplier.

Communicating data in the IoT

The Internet of Things is evolving to provide greater intelligence at the node, converting raw data into smart information. With less data to communicate, it becomes more cost-effective to integrate low power RF transceivers into the node module. Certification to wireless protocol standards ensures interoperability and the emergence of open tools will make support for these standards less onerous to developers.

Five tips for developing secure android applications

Android now commands 76% of the smartphone market in the EU5 (Germany, Great Britain, France, Italy, and Spain), 67% in the US and nearly 80% in China – according to latest figures from Kantor World Panel. With such numbers, it’s no wonder the Android application development gold rush is continuing with nearly a quarter of a million apps added to Google Play so far in 2016. That’s an average of 1379 apps every day. However, with Accessibility Clickjacking, Stagefright, Triada and other malware among the growing list of Android exploits, security should be at top of developers’ priority list.

MRAM is finding ways around the memory chasm

When Freescale started work on magnetic random access memory (MRAM) two decades ago, it looked as though it could provide a fast, low power memory that does not need a constant flow of current to store data. With a bit cell that looked to be competitive with DRAM, but with better storage behaviour than flash, MRAM offered the potential to be the ultimate memory.

High throughput, low power requirement

For cloud and IoT applications, there is a rising need for flexible GbE firewalls in corporate network infrastructures. With integrated Open Source and x86-based AMD Embedded G-Series SoCs, Deciso’s OPNsense firewall appliance offers double the flexibility. It enables high throughput with low power consumption making it suitable for both enterprise and IoT appliances.

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